Global challenges require global solutions, say leaders

Paris Peace Forum – Joint statement with the international organizations¹

Paris, 11 November 2018

Joint declaration by President Emmanuel Macron, UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres, WTO Director-General Roberto Azevêdo, UNESCO Director-General Audrey Azoulay, OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría, World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim, IMF Managing Director Christine Lagarde, and ILO Director-General Guy Ryder, on the occasion of their meeting at the Paris Peace Forum on 11 November 2018.

We have come together in Paris, France, on 11 November 2018, guided by our shared values of freedom, the rule of law and respect for human rights, as well as our commitment to promote democratic values and a rules-based international order reinforced by strong multilateral institutions.

We share a responsibility to build a more peaceful, secure and prosperous world, recognizing that respect for human rights, the rule of law, and equality of opportunity are necessary for securing a lasting peace, security and well-being, and to enable a sustainable development that benefits all, leaving no underserved population behind.

We share a fundamental commitment to investing in the citizens of the world and meeting their needs and expectations, as well as to responding to global challenges. We are resolved to work together in creating a healthy, prosperous, sustainable and fair future for all.

We welcome the ongoing cooperation between the UN, the IMF, the World Bank Group, UNESCO, the ILO, the OECD and the WTO. Areas such as maintaining international peace and security, the protection of the environment and biodiversity, development and the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), international trade and investments, human rights and gender equality, the fight against corruption and tax avoidance and evasion are interrelated and require coordinated action. These goals are best achieved through a collective action, with the participation of all states. The most pressing challenges in terms of peace and security – climate change, nuclear weapons proliferation, terrorism, pandemics, food insecurity, water scarcity, trade conflicts – are global in scope and require global solutions.

The international community has made significant strides towards lifting people out of poverty. However, in recent years, inequality has begun to grow again, and large disparities remain regarding access to basic rights and services such as health and education. Inequalities undermine intergenerational mobility and reduce trust in the socio-political system, with negative consequences for democracy. We reaffirm our commitment to work together and in close coordination with each other in order to reduce inequality, paying special attention to the needs of disadvantaged and marginalized populations.

As global challenges require global attention, collective responsibility and global solutions, we remain determined to spare no efforts in order to achieve a sustainable peace and progress via multilateral approaches. We underline the importance of multilateral policies focused on conflict prevention and the necessity of fostering adapted tools and strategies in this regard. We underscore our determination to promote, in coordination with each other, inclusive approaches that support the diverse range of our missions and take into account the entire peace nexus, including prevention, conflict resolution, peacekeeping, peacebuilding, humanitarian aid, decent work and development.

We also underline our determination to foster international cooperation to harness positively the potential of the digital transformation for the benefit of all citizens, mitigating risks and ensuring through a rules-based system that innovation leads to healthier economies, fairer societies and better lives.

At a time when multilateralism is contested, we reaffirm our commitment to the existing international institutions as well as our determination to enable these institutions to be ever more representative of the international community and its shared values. International organizations continue to offer a platform where member states, regional institutions and organizations, cities, and civil society can discuss possible solutions to global problems that no state acting alone can resolve. Working together multilaterally is not optional; it is the only answer.

By creating a space for dialogue to share ideas and actions, partnerships and networks between international organizations promote our common goal of a lasting security and development that benefits all. We remain convinced that in order to achieve sustained peace and sustainable development, we need to engage in strong collective action and enhance our collaboration and partnerships, including with the business community, social partners, financial institutions, civil society and regional and sub-regional organizations.

We also recognize the importance for international institutions to continue to innovate and adapt to evolving challenges and new questions facing the international community. The credibility of the multilateral system is achieved by high levels of coordination between international organizations, their ability to reform and to deliver on their mandates, with member states providing the political support and adequate resources necessary for their work. We underscore our commitment to strengthen our cooperation through regular and periodic exchanges, leveraging our synergies to address common global challenges./.

¹ Source of English text: OECD website.

Paris Peace Forum – Joint statement by Mr Roch Marc Christian Kaboré (Burkina Faso), Mr Justin Trudeau (Canada), Mr Carlos Alvarado (Costa Rica), Mr Lars Lokke Rasmussen (Denmark), M. Emmanuel Macron (France), Mr Raimonds Vējonis (Latvia), Mr Saad Hariri (Lebanon), Ms Dalia Grybauskaitè (Lithuania), Ms Erna Solberg (Norway), Mr Macky Sall (Senegal), Mr Alain Berset (Switzerland) and Mr Beji Caid Essebsi (Tunisia).¹

Paris, 11 November 2018

The heads of state or government of Burkina Faso, Canada, Costa Rica, Denmark, France, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Norway, Senegal, Switzerland and Tunisia commend the work of the international independent Information and Democracy Commission initiated by the organization Reporters Without Borders, which has presented today, 11 November 2018, the results of this work at the Paris Peace Forum. This Commission, initiated by Reporters without Borders, proposes, in its declaration published on 5 November 2018, that the global information and communication space be acknowledged as a common good of humankind, where freedom, pluralism and integrity of information must be guaranteed.

The commission underlines that actors in a position to shape this global space have responsibilities, especially in terms of political and ideological neutrality, pluralism, and accountability. It also calls for the acknowledgement that individuals have the right, not only to independent and pluralistic information, but also to reliable information, which is a necessary condition for them to freely form an opinion, and participate in a valuable way to the democratic debate.

Concerned that professional journalism has become more fragile, and that disinformation online continues to spread, both of which upset the functioning of our democracies, preoccupied that political control of the media remains in many countries and that freedom of the press continues to be threatened, as well as the subjugation of information to commercial interests, the heads of state or government of Burkina Faso, Canada, Costa Rica, Denmark, France, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Norway, Senegal, Switzerland and Tunisia have decided to launch an initiative for information and democracy, inspired by the principles of this declaration.

Seventy years after the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, they will renew, through this initiative that will remain open to support by further governments, their commitment towards the right to exercise freedom of opinion and expression, and define the objectives to be pursued in order to achieve the full realization of these freedoms in the technological and political context of the 21st century./.

¹Source of English text: French Foreign Ministry website.

Paris Peace Forum – Introductory speech by M. Emmanuel Macron, President of the Republic

Paris, 11 November 2018

(Check against delivery)

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Of these ceremonies for the centenary of the 1918 Armistice, history will no doubt remember an image: 84 heads of state and government from once warring nations, peacefully reunited in Paris under the Arc de Triomphe. But what remains uncertain for the future is the way that image will be interpreted; will it be the vivid symbol of a lasting peace between nations or, on the contrary, a photograph showing a final moment of unity before the world descends into fresh chaos? And this depends on us alone.

The world in which we live is being weakened by crises which are destabilizing our societies: the economic, environmental and climate crises and the migration challenge. Weakened by the resurgence of threats which could strike at any moment: terrorism, chemical and nuclear proliferation and cyber crime. Weakened by the return of grim passions – nationalism, racism, anti-Semitism, extremism – which call into question the future our peoples expect.

That’s why we wanted to organize this Paris Peace Forum, which is destined to take place every year and draw together heads of state and government, of course – and I want to thank everyone who’s here and has mobilized –, but also representatives of international organizations, non-governmental organizations, local authorities, voluntary organizations, businesses, foundations, intellectuals, journalists, activists; as you said, chère Trisha, everyone who makes up the world today and can change it.

The aim of the Paris Peace Forum is to bring people together every year to promote practical action so that peace efforts make a little more progress every year. It’s also because of this that I want to welcome the presence of Nadia Murad, the 2018 joint Nobel Peace Prize winner, who in a few moments’ time will be launching a very concrete project to consolidate peace through her foundation for the Sinjar district in northern Iraq. Thank you.

So my dear friends, we’re here today because all those who fell 100 years ago, as Clemenceau said, have rights over us. And this is where our duty lies. A hundred years ago we didn’t succeed in winning the peace, because France and Germany continued to be divided. And from humiliations to crises and the rise of totalitarianism, war broke out again 20 years later. It’s why I was really keen for this Paris Peace Forum to be inaugurated by Chancellor Angela Merkel. Thank you, chère Angela.

And 100 years ago, our predecessors tried building this peace to last; they invented the League of Nations, the first form of international cooperation. But it was shattered by unilateralism in some quarters, by economic and moral crises and by nationalism. That’s why I wanted António Guterres, the United Nations Secretary-General, to be the second speaker to open this Paris Peace Forum. Thank you, cher Antonio, for being here.

That’s what I wanted to say to you, ladies and gentlemen. Thank you for coming and I thank Chancellor Merkel and Secretary-General Guterres for their presence and their words. Let me hand over to them. Thank you./.

Digital diplomacy – Internet Governance Forum – Paris Call for Trust and Security in Cyberspace

Paris, 12 November 2018

Cyberspace now plays a crucial role in every aspect of our lives and it is the shared responsibility of a wide variety of actors, in their respective roles,to improve trust, security and stability in cyberspace.

We reaffirm our support to an open, secure, stable, accessible and peaceful cyberspace, which has become an integral component of life in all its social, economic, cultural and political aspects.

We also reaffirm that international law, including the United Nations Charter in its entirety, international humanitarian law and customary international law is applicable to the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) by states.

We reaffirm that the same rights that people have offline must also be protected online, and also reaffirm the applicability of international human rights law in cyberspace.

We reaffirm that international law, together with the voluntary norms of responsible state behaviour during peacetime and associated confidence and capacity-building measures developed within the United Nations, is the foundation for international peace and security in cyberspace.

We condemn malicious cyber activities in peacetime, notably the ones threatening or resulting in significant, indiscriminate or systemic harm to individuals and critical infrastructure and welcome calls for their improved protection.

We also welcome efforts by states and non-state actors to provide support to victims of malicious use of ICTs on an impartial and independent basis, whenever it occurs, whether during or outside of armed conflict.

We recognize that the threat of cyber criminality requires more effort to improve the security of the products we use, to strengthen our defences against criminals and to promote cooperation among all stakeholders, within and across national borders, and that the Budapest Convention on Cybercrime is a key tool in this regard.

We recognize the responsibilities of key private sector actors in improving trust, security and stability in cyberspace and encourage initiatives aimed at strengthening the security of digital processes, products and services.

We welcome collaboration among governments, the private sector and civil society to create new cybersecurity standards that enable infrastructures and organizations to improve cyber protections.

We recognize all actors can support a peaceful cyberspace by encouraging the responsible and coordinated disclosure of vulnerabilities.

We underline the need to enhance broad digital cooperation and increase capacity-building efforts by all actors and encourage initiatives that build user resilience and capabilities.

We recognize the necessity of a strengthened multistakeholder approach and of additional efforts to reduce risks to the stability of cyberspace and to build up confidence, capacity and trust.

To that end, we affirm our willingness to work together, in the existing fora and through the relevant organizations, institutions, mechanisms and processes to assist one another and implement cooperative measures, notably in order to:

- Prevent and recover from malicious cyber activities that threaten or cause significant, indiscriminate or systemic harm to individuals and critical infrastructure;

- Prevent activity that intentionally and substantially damages the general availability or integrity of the public core of the Internet;

- Strengthen our capacity to prevent malign interference by foreign actors aimed at undermining electoral processes through malicious cyber activities;

- Prevent ICT-enabled theft of intellectual property, including trade secrets or other confidential business information, with the intent of providing competitive advantages to companies or commercial sector;

- Develop ways to prevent the proliferation of malicious ICT tools and practices intended to cause harm;

- Strengthen the security of digital processes, products and services, throughout their lifecycle and supply chain;

- Support efforts to strengthen an advanced cyber hygiene for all actors;

- Take steps to prevent non-state actors, including the private sector, from hacking-back, for their own purposes or those of other non-state actors;

- Promote the widespread acceptance and implementation of international norms of responsible behaviour as well as confidence-building measures in cyberspace.

In order to follow up on the progress made to advance these issues in the appropriate existing fora and processes, we agree on reconvening at the Paris Peace Forum in 2019 and at the Internet Governance Forum in Berlin in 2019./.

Published on 14/11/2018

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